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NATURAL DISASTERS RISK P. 3


     

                       assuming uncertainty related with each road segment’s robustness, obtained from applying Monte Carlo simulation technique, and supply-demand situations with respect to various commodities, we also try to measure the robustness and importance of the transportation network system quantitatively. Our modeling approach can be applied to the actual case of the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake for making effective and efficient public policies for the emergent situations.


         Finally, we are aware that the number of disasters seems to be prominent all corners of the globe which make no country or community are fully protected from the risk of disasters. Therefore, in order to avoid a large amount of human losses and unnecessary demolition of infrastructure, disaster management strategies at each phase should be well planned and improved.

           huge magnitude and negative impacts

        Disasters are events of huge magnitude and negative impacts on society and environment. Disaster is also defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover  . Disaster can hit anywhere, at any time and take any form, be it natural disasters as we have seen too often in our recent past or manmade. They affect communities and nations, causing human life losses and material damages. One classification of disasters includes the following four causes (Star, 2007) namely; by human error and technological failures, by intentional malevolence, by acts of nature, and combinations of some or all the previous. The four causes of disasters are considered, generally, low probability-high impact events, meaning, they are events with low probability of occurrence but with high impact on the community or the environment. Regarding by act of nature, the International Disaster Database EM-DAT categorized the natural disaster into 5 sub-groups, which in turn cover 12 disaster types and more than 30 sub-types







                 In the last four decades, based on the International Disaster Database between 1970-1979 and 2000-2012, the number of natural disaster events reported globally increased significantly from 837 to 4,939 or increased almost six times. Over the whole period of 1970-2012, 40.8 percent of these natural disasters occurred in Asia. portrays the increasing trend of natural disasters reported by region of continent. Such increases are allegedly associated with the increasing of population exposed to hazards. ........................... 
           
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