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              The escalation of large-scale natural disasters in recent years such as the devastation earthquake and tsunami event in Japan and Indonesia in March 2011 and December 2004, respectively, the extreme floods in India, Germany and Switzerland in July and August 2005, the extensive bushfires due to severe droughts in Portugal and Spain in the same period, and Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the south-east coast of United States in August 2005 have caused fatalities, disruptions of livelihood, and enormous economic loss. These events show dramatically how the ongoing global environmental change and also inadequate coastal defense, lack of early warning and unsustainable practices, and even neglect can affect people all over the world. Table 1.1 describes the natural disaster occurrences and impacts by region.

          Japan and Indonesia are no exception, where both countries are geographically located on the Ring of Fire which causes these two countries vulnerable to disasters. Japan lies at the confluence of four plates, which are the Eurasian plate and North American plate in the north, the Pacific plate in the east and Philippines sea micro plate in the south. On the other hand, Indonesia lies at the confluence of three plates, namely Indo-Australia plate in the south, Euro-Asia plate in the north, and Pacific plate in the east. Subduction between these plates, such as the Pacific plate and the Eurasian plate in Japan and the Indo-Australian and Euro-Asian plate in Indonesia, causing earthquakes and series lines of active volcanoes along the islands of Japan and Indonesia. This led to Japan and Indonesia prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. These kind of natural disasters caused numbers of casualties and/or severe property damages.

                  As it has been a common awareness that, nowadays, disasters seem to be prominent at all corners of the globe. No country nor community could claim themselves completely protected from the risk of disasters. Thus, the importance of disaster management is undeniable, since a large amount of human losses and unnecessary demolition of infrastructure can be avoided with very responsive Disaster Management Action. The Georgia Tech Health & Humanitarian Logistics Center (HHL) divides the disaster timeline into three phases, namely Pre-disaster, Disaster, and Post-disaster.  depicts the disaster timeline along with the activities or actions taken in the disaster management.

          Mitigation is the application of measures that will either prevent the onset of a disaster or reduce the impacts should one occur; it aims to minimize the effects of disasters. Preparedness activities prepare the community to respond when a disaster occurs. Response is the employment of resources and emergency procedures as guided by plans to preserve life, property, the environment, and the social, economic, and political structure of the community; it aims to minimize the hazards created by a disaster. Finally, Recovery involves the actions taken in the long term after the immediate impact of the disaster has passed to stabilize the community (Rehabilitation) and to restore some semblance of normalcy (Reconstruction).
Natural hazards events cannot be prevented from occurring, but their impacts on people and property can be reduced if advance action is taken to mitigate risks and minimize vulnerability to natural disasters. This implies the need for effective methods or techniques to minimize casualties and costs incurred due to disasters.

Therefore, based on three phases of disaster management, the research will attempt to make a contribution to each phase of the activity. First of all, for the mitigation and preparedness phases which carried on in the pre-disaster, we sought to investigate the past trend of natural disasters, focusing upon earthquakes and tsunamis that occurred in Japan and Indonesia. We also investigate major factors to affect human casualties of natural disasters by using the same data of earthquakes and tsunamis that occurred in Japan and Indonesia. In both of the studies at this first phase, we apply mathematical policy analysis techniques in our natural disaster risk analysis and assessment in order to develop policies to mitigate the casualties caused by natural disasters. Then, we also investigate the damaging impacts of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) as well as evaluating the restoration and reconstruction performance, especially on the agricultural and manufacturing sectors.



                       assuming uncertainty related with each road segment’s robustness, obtained from applying Monte Carlo simulation technique, and supply-demand situations with respect to various commodities, we also try to measure the robustness and importance of the transportation network system quantitatively. Our modeling approach can be applied to the actual case of the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake for making effective and efficient public policies for the emergent situations.

         Finally, we are aware that the number of disasters seems to be prominent all corners of the globe which make no country or community are fully protected from the risk of disasters. Therefore, in order to avoid a large amount of human losses and unnecessary demolition of infrastructure, disaster management strategies at each phase should be well planned and improved.

           huge magnitude and negative impacts

        Disasters are events of huge magnitude and negative impacts on society and environment. Disaster is also defined as a crisis situation causing wide spread damage which far exceeds our ability to recover  . Disaster can hit anywhere, at any time and take any form, be it natural disasters as we have seen too often in our recent past or manmade. They affect communities and nations, causing human life losses and material damages. One classification of disasters includes the following four causes (Star, 2007) namely; by human error and technological failures, by intentional malevolence, by acts of nature, and combinations of some or all the previous. The four causes of disasters are considered, generally, low probability-high impact events, meaning, they are events with low probability of occurrence but with high impact on the community or the environment. Regarding by act of nature, the International Disaster Database EM-DAT categorized the natural disaster into 5 sub-groups, which in turn cover 12 disaster types and more than 30 sub-types

                 In the last four decades, based on the International Disaster Database between 1970-1979 and 2000-2012, the number of natural disaster events reported globally increased significantly from 837 to 4,939 or increased almost six times. Over the whole period of 1970-2012, 40.8 percent of these natural disasters occurred in Asia. portrays the increasing trend of natural disasters reported by region of continent. Such increases are allegedly associated with the increasing of population exposed to hazards. ........................... 



            we quantitatively investigating the past trend of natural disasters, focusing upon earthquakes and tsunamis, which occurred in Japan and Indonesia with respect to their occurrences and human casualties; including both deaths and missing people (D&M). We apply mathematical policy analysis techniques in our natural disaster risk analysis and assessment in order to develop policies to mitigate the casualties caused by these natural disasters. First, we review the historical trend of earthquakes and tsunamis related to their occurrences and D&M from 1900 to 2012 to explain their occurrence frequency and forecast the D&M using probabilistic models. We divide the entire period into three time-periods and compare their tendency in both countries. Using about 100 years of data, our study confirms that the Exponential distribution fits the data of inter-occurrence times between two consecutive earthquakes and tsunamis, while the Poisson distribution fits the data of D&M. The average numbers of inter-occurrence times of earthquakes for Japan and Indonesia are 186.23 days and 167.77 days, respectively, whilst those of tsunamis are 273.31 days and 490.71 days, respectively. We find that earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 6.0Mw to 7.4Mw and having epicenters in the mainland cause more casualties, while those with magnitudes 7.5Mw and above and having epicenters offshore/at sea cause relatively fewer casualties. This implies that mainland earthquakes have higher probability to bring more casualties than the sea earthquakes. In terms of fatalities, earthquakes and tsunamis have caused more deaths in Japan than in Indonesia .

                As a continuation   which is included in the activities carried out during the first phase of disaster management, the timing and magnitude of natural disasters are unpredictable, and thus are stochastic. Number of death and missing people (D&M) caused by natural disasters are often used to measure the magnitude of the disasters. By using statistical analysis, we investigate the relationship between the D&M inflicted and some parameters of natural disasters with case studies of earthquakes and tsunamis occurred in Japan and Indonesia from 1900 to 2012. The parameters under investigation are the epicenter location, earthquake magnitude, depth of hypocenter, and water height. We found that the earthquake magnitude and water height are positively affect the D&M inflicted, while the epicenter location and hypocenter depth have significant and negative effect. In addition, in Chapter III we also review the recovery process from the 2004 Aceh tsunami and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, especially in the agriculture sector.

             we measure the damaging impacts due to the 2011 GEJE that hit Japan on March 11, 2011 and discuss about the recovery process, especially on the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Three years have passed since the 2011 GEJE hit the northeastern part of Japan. The earthquake then triggered a devastating tsunami and a nuclear accident, which in turn created a compound disaster that claimed a large number of human casualties and devastated properties. The 2011 GEJE caused the economy growth to decline by 2.2% with the largest decrease experienced by the industrial sector (-7.1%), followed by the agricultural sector (-3.6%) and the services sector (-0.2%). The agriculture and manufacturing sectors underwent large decreases in growth since the economies of most of the affected prefectures have relied on these two sectors. Thus, by investigating the damaging impacts of the 2011 GEJE we try to evaluate the restoration and reconstruction performance in the agriculture and manufacturing sectors. Our study finds that there has been significant progress made towards restoration and reconstruction on the areas affected by the disaster. Using prefectural data from 2000 to 2012, we apply econometric methods based upon the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable to estimate the impact of the 2011 GEJE on the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. From this analysis, two major insights emerged. First, the 2011 GEJE had a significant negative impact on agriculture and manufacturing sectors. On average, the impact on the agriculture sector was higher than on the manufacturing sector, specially, about twice as large. Second, in each sector, the impact of the disaster was perceived differently depending on the region. In both the agriculture and manufacturing sectors, the most affected prefectures experienced about triple the impact that the less affected prefectures underwent.

                although it cannot be denied, that there are still many people's lives greatly inconvenienced because of the damage caused, mainly in the disaster-hit areas and elsewhere in the country, but there has been significant progress made towards restoration and reconstruction on the areas affected by the disaster in the two years since. One of the important lessons learned from the recovery process due to the 2011 GEJE is that nimble handling and comprehensiveness as well as good cooperation from all parties are the keys to success in the recovery process after any major disaster, in which according to MOFA, Japan has received, so far, assistance from 163 countries and 43 international organizations.
Given a seriously emergent situation occurring e.g. just after large-scale natural disasters and so on, how to deal with victims, survivors, and damaged areas is a very critical and important problem. There are short-term and long-term responding strategies to be taken by the public sector. The former includes how to distribute necessary goods to the damaged area and transport them corresponding to their supply and demand situation as quickly as possible while the latter corresponds to trying to make long-term future plan for e.g. building new infrastructures and then making city planning. In order to obtain an optimal strategy for the former problem we try to make necessary and desirable response strategies for managing emergent cases caused by various natural disasters by solving multi commodity transshipment network flow optimization problems under various types of uncertain situations ...........




                       ) The title of this dissertation is ‘Quantitative Study on Natural Disasters Risk Management Policy – Applying Statistical Data Analysis and Mathematical Modeling Approach –‘. This research aims to make the analysis and planning of disaster management in order to develop policies to mitigate the number of death and missing people (D&Mand/or property damages caused by natural disasters. Based on the time line of the disaster management, the analyses of the study are made in accordance with the actions taken in the three phases in disaster management, namely preparedness and mitigation, response, and recovery. In preparedness and mitigation stages, we investigate the past trend of natural disasters as well as investigate major factors to affect human casualties of natural disasters, focusing upon earthquakes and tsunamis that occurred in Japan and Indonesia. Then, we continue our investigation for measuring the damaging impacts of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and also evaluating the recovery performance, especially on the agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Furthermore, as one of our contributions for the disaster response activities, we propose a multi commodity transshipment network flow optimization techniques under uncertainty in order to measure the robustness of the transportation network system for the emergent situation. As the case study, we apply the model to deliver relief commodities to the affected regions due to the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake.

                              This  was motivated by a deep sense of concern for the large number of damages or casualties in the form of loss of lives and property as a result of disasters, both natural disasters and disasters caused by human error or technological failures. This research aims to learn the “nature” of disasters in order to assist the policy makers and planners who are involved in disaster and risk policy management, particulary inthe area of mitigation and preparedness, response and recovery in Japan and Indonesia. There are six objectives of this study: (i) To investigate and model the past trend of disasters with the consideration of the availability, completeness and accuracy of historical data required;
 (ii) To elucidate major factors to affect human casualties of natural disasters;
 (iii) To investigate the impact of natural disaster, i.e. the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and evaluating the restoration and reconstruction performance
; (iv) To develop a multi commodity transshipment network flow optimization model under uncertainty in order to measure the robustness of the transportation network system for the emergent situation;
 (v) To apply the optimization model to the response action for the actual natural disaster occurred, namely the 2009 West Sumatra earthquake; and
(vi) To propose policy recommendations regarding with the disaster management.


Natural Disasters in U.S.

The Great Storm of 1900 in U.S.

One storm left an expected 8,000 dead afterward, while an epic surge conveyed human bodies somewhere in the range of 350 miles away. 

The compelling force of nature can be cruel. From the beating typhoons of the Inlet Drift, to the trailer-hurling tempests of Tornado Back road, to the ground-beating shudders of California, the Unified States is no more abnormal to lethal cataclysmic events. Here are five of the most noticeably bad catastrophic events to wreak destruction on U.S. soil. 

Natural force can be savage. From the stirring typhoons of the Bay Drift, to the trailer-hurling tempests of Tornado Rear way, to the ground-beating shudders of California, the Unified States is no more peculiar to dangerous cataclysmic events. Here are five of the most noticeably awful catastrophic events to wreak ruin on U.S. soil. 

Galveston, Texas sits on a limited boundary island in the Inlet of Mexico with a pinnacle rise of 8.7 feet above ocean level. In 1900, Galveston was the pearl of Texas, its greatest port city, home to tycoon chateaus and a portion of the country's first electric streetlights. 

Galveston, Texas sits on a restricted obstruction island in the Inlet of Mexico with a pinnacle rise of 8.7 feet above ocean level. In 1900, Galveston was the diamond of Texas, its greatest port city, home to mogul manors .

The majority of that changed on September 8, when an anonymous sea tempest bearing 140-m.p.h twists pummeled into the Inlet Drift, producing a 16-foot storm flood that almost wiped the island and its 37,000 occupants off the guide. An expected 6,000 to 8,000 individuals died in the tempest, the single deadliest in U.S. history. 

Among the frightening subtle elements of the Galveston storm were trolley tracks tore from their moorings and crushing through structures like battering rams, a fantastic piano riding the peak of a six-foot wave down Broadway, and a tenacious breeze that survivors portrayed as "a thousand little villains screaming and shrieking." 

Among the frightening points of interest of the Galveston storm were trolley tracks tore from their moorings and crushing through structures like battering rams, a great piano riding the peak of a six-foot wave down Broadway, and a persistent breeze that survivors depicted as "a thousand little fiends yelling and shrieking." 

Yet, the best single catastrophe has a place with St. Mary's Vagrants Shelter, where 93 youngsters and 10 nuns took asylum in the young lady's residence after the kid's was lifted off its establishment and washed away by the beating waves. In urgency, every one of the sisters bound herself with clothesline to eight to 10 youngsters, and that is the means by which the vast majority of their bodies were found. Just three of the vagrants survived the tempest.

Be that as it may, the best single disaster has a place with St. Mary's Vagrants Haven, where 93 kids and 10 nuns took asylum in the young lady's residence after the kid's was lifted off its establishment and washed away by the beating waves. In edginess, every one of the sisters bound herself with clothesline to eight to 10 kids, and that is the means by which the vast majority of their bodies were found. Just three of the vagrants survived the tempest.

read more in ....................


Natural Disasters IN INDIA P. 5


Cyclones are centers of low atmospheric pressure, in which the air pressure increases from the centre to the outer areas. Consequently winds flow from outside
to the centres. In cyclones winds blow in an anticlock-wise direction in the northern
hemisphere and in clock-wise in the southern hemisphere.
On the basis of their location and physical properties cyclones are of two types;
temperate cyclones and tropical cyclones. Here a description of only tropical
cyclone is given.The use of word ‘cyclone’ is implied for tropical cyclone here

Cyclone is a violent circular stormy, in which high velocity winds blow from outside
to the centre and are associated with torrential rain. Cyclones play an important
role in the general circulation of the atmosphere. A fully developed cyclone
can transfer 3.5 billion tons of warm humid air within an hour.

When do cyclones occur?

Cyclone is a phenomenon. It is concentrated to certain seasonal cyclic segment.
In India, most of the cyclones occur in the post monsoon season, i.e. from October
to December or in pre-monsoon season from April to May. The life span of a
cyclone is generally from 7 to 14 days.
The Movement of Cyclones

The cyclone, with its whole system, moves forward from east to west (in Bay of
Bengal) with a speed of 15 to 30 km per hour. The cyclone that struck orissa,
originated near Andaman & Nicobar Islands and reached Orissa on 29-10-1999
after many days. The movement of cyclone in a direction is like the movement of
a spinning top. Cyclones originate over the sea surface and dissipate as they reach

Where do the cyclones strike in India

The eastern coast of India is the most cyclone affected region. The cyclone prone
states are; West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu: Western coast
is affected by the cyclones which originate in the Arabian Sea. Gujarat on the west
coast, is most affected by cyclones. The coastal areas and interior of Maharstra
are affected by cyclones too. More cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal and

the Arabain Sea than any other seas of the world.

Devastation by cyclones

The violent winds of a cyclone destroy whatever come in their way from; thatched
cottage to the palaces, forts built of concrete, iron and stones. Trees are uprooted.
Lines of electricity and communication are destroyed. Torrential rains cause floods.
Floods wreak havoc all around. High sea waves are generated in the sea by speedy
cyclonic winds. They strike the coastal areas like high wall of water and flood the
areas upto 10-15 km from the coast. In these areas houses, crops, roads, buildings,
villages and cities one and all are submerged. Landslides triggered by cyclonic
rains are more devastating.
Developed countries have evolved measures to mitigate the fury of cyclones. The
warning of cyclone is issued. They are broadcasted and telecasted at right time.
This saves the life of people. On the contrary the people in developing countries
get premature deaths. In USA, a fierce hurricane named Hugho struck in September
1989. Only 21 people lost their lives due to its impact, because a timely
warming was issued, but contrary to this 1,39,000 people lost their lives in
Bangladesh when a cyclone struck the country in 1991.

Some do’s and don’ts before, during and after the cyclone
 Listen to the radio for advance information and advice
 Keep considerable margin of time for safety.
 A cyclone may change direction, speed, or intensity within a few hours, so
stay tuned to the radio for updated information.

If high velocity winds or severe gales are forecasted for your area:
 Store or secure loose boards, corrugated iron sheets, old tin boxes, anything
else that could become dangerous.
 Close the windows tightly to prevent them from breakage.
 Move to the safe shelter built for this purpose, or leave the area on the advice
of some authoritative government agency.

When the storm strikes.

 Stay in the house and take shelter in the stronger portion of your house.
 Listen to the radio and follow instructions.
 Open windows of the safe portion of the house if the roof begins to lift.
 Find shelter if you are in open at the hitting time of the cyclone.
 Do not go out of your house or to a beach during or lay down along an
elevated footpath in open field the storm. Cyclone often generates large surges
in these oceans or lakes.


Natural Disasters IN INDIA P. 4

In simple words sudden shaking or trembling of the earthsurface is an earthquake.
Most earthquake are a minor tremor. Larger earthquakes usually begin with slight
tremors but suddenly they turn into violent shocks and after that the intencity of
shocks deminishes. Tremors or shocks are felt for a few seconds only.
Earthquake is a hazard that strikes suddenly. A hindi poet described the earthquake
in these word. “Earthquakes strikes without pre information but the breathing
stops without informing the man.”

Earthquake can occur at any time of the year, day or night. There are no warning signs of earthquakes. Extensive and sincere research
has been conducted but success has eluded humans in the forcast or prediction
of earthquake.

High risk earthquake prone areas: Bureau of Indian Standard has prepared a map of India, showing earthquake seisnic zones of different intensity. Its revised
edition has been published in 2002. India has been divided into four zones.
The intensity of each zone, result and losses caused by earthquake are described

Zone II - The earthquake is felt by all, some people run outdoor. Heavy furniture
may possibly move a little small pieces of plaster fall. Cracks in chimneys.

Zone III - Everyone runs out of doors, slight damage is there even in better
designed and strongly built building. More breakage in ordinary bridges houses
etc. Considerable damage to poorly designed and sub-standard buildings bridges

Zone IV - Slight damage in specially designed and well built building bridges etc.
Heavy damage to poorly designed and badly built structures. Chimneys, poles,
memorials, walls etc. fall down.

Zone V - Severe damage to even well built bridges, buildings, foundations are
displaced. Cracks and fissures develop in the ground. Practically all structures fall
or small are greatly damaged or destroyed.

Delhi and Mumbai are situated in high risk zone no. IV. The whole of North East
India, Kachchh, Gujrat, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir
are in the very high risk zone no. V. Now peninsular plateau is not safe from
earthquakes. Earthquake of Latur (1993, intensity on rich for scale 6.4) and Koyna
(1967 intensity 6.5) in Maharashtra testify it.

Impact of Earthquake

(i) Damage of property : when earthquake occurs, all buildings from cottage
to palaces and stronger skyscrapers are greatly damaged or totally destroyed.
Underground pipelines and railway lines are damaged or broken. Dams on
river collapse, resultant floods cause havoc. The earthquake in 1967 in Koyna
damaged the Dam.

(ii) Human loss - Duration of tremors of earthquake is normally of only few
seconds, but thousands of people may die in this short period. Five severely
devastating earthquakes have occurred in India between 1988 and January
26, 2001. Nearly 31000 people lost their lives prematurely. Bihar earthquake
of 1934 and Kangra earthquake of 1905, 10,000 and 20,000 people
died respectively. Numerous people lost their shelter and many became orphans.
The earthquake that occurred in Gujarat on 26 January, 2001 was
devastating and disastrous. More than 25,000 people died due to the impact
of this earthquake. The destruction of property was tremendous and could
not be estimated properly and exactly.

(iii) Changes in river courses: Sometimes river channels are blocked or their
courses are changed due to the impact of earthquake.

(iv) Tsunamis : are caused by earthquake. This is a Japanese word, meaning
extremely high sea wave. It wreaks havoc on settlement of coastal areas. It
sinks large ships. Tsunami that occurred on 26-12-2004 near coast of Sumatra
(Indonesia) property worth billions of rupee. More than two lakh people lost
their lives in Southeast Asia, India and Sri Lanka.

(v) Fountains of mud : Due to the intense impact of earthquake hotwater and
mud appear on the surface and take a form of fountains. In Bihar earthquake
of 1934 some cracks and fissures had developed. The fields of farmer were
covered by knee-deep mud and the crops were destroyed.

(vi) Cracks and fissures : Sometimes cracks and fissures develop in roads
railway tracks, and fields, making them useless. Well known san Andreas
fault formed during the earthquake of San Fransisco (California).

(vii) Landslides and avalanches are triggered
Some Do’s and Don’t during and after the earthquake:

Inside the house

 Don’t run outside, set your family into-doorways, under table or if they are
bedridden, more them under the beds; keep away from windows and chimneys.

Outside the house

 Don’t go near the buildings, high walls, or electric wires.

While driving

If an earthquake occurs stop driving and keep sitting in the vehicle.
To be done immediately
(i) Put off domestic fire, and all electrical switches.
(ii) Leave the house if possible and go to open space.
(iii) Leave the house if a gas leak is detected after the gas is turned off.
(iv) Save water
(v) Untie and free pets and domestic animals (dogs, cats and cattles)


Natural Disasters IN INDIA P. 3



A major landslide occurred in the midnight in a place called Lamari on the foot
path leading to Kailash Mansarover about 60 km away from Dharchula, in August
1998. Lamari is situated between Bendi and Malpa. The debris of this landslide
slipped into river Kali and blocked its flow. The water of the river spread over an
area of 1½ square km. Thus a lake was created in which the water was flowing.
Some pilgrims going to Kailash Mansarovar were resting here in this fateful night.

This landslide killed 60 pilgrims.

What is a Landslide ?

The slipping of masses of rocks, earth or debris downwards on the mountain
slopes or banks of the rivers is called a landslide. The occurance of landslides in
mountainous areas is increasing day by day. The impact of landslides on the people

in the mountains is clearly visible.

Landslide prone areas : The landslides are a common feature in Himalaya,
Western ghats and in river valleys. The state of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal
Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and all the seven states of North East India, are
most vulnerable to landslide. In southern India Mahrastra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu
and Kerala bear the brunt of landslides.

Causes of landslides

1. Heavy rain : Heavy rain is the main cause of landslides.

2. Deforestation : Deforestation is another major cause of landslides. Tree,
brushes and grasses keep the soil particles compact. Mountain slope looses
their protective cover by felling of trees. The rain water flows on such slopes
with unempeded speed.

3. Earthquakes and volcanic explosions : Earthquake is a common feature
in the Himalaya. Tremors destabilize the mountains and the rocks tumble
downwards. Volcanic explosions also trigger landslides in the mountainous

4. Building of roads: Roads are built in mountainous areas for development.
During the process of the construction of road, a large amount of rocks and
debris has to be removed. This process dislodges the rock structure and

changes the angle of slopes. Consequently landslides are triggered.

5. Shifting agriculture : In the North Eastern part of India, the number and
frequency of landslides has increased due to the practice of shifting agriculture.

6. Construction of houses and other buildings : For giving shelter to the
ever-increasing population and promotion of tourism more and more house
and hotels are being built. In building processes large amount of dibrises

created. This causes the landslides.

Impact of landslide

(i) Degrading of environment : Landslides are degrading the environment of
mountains. Natural beauty is deminishing slowly and slowly.

(ii) Sources of water are drying up.

(iii) Flooding in rivers is incrasing.

(iv) Roads are blocked.

(v) Life and property are lost.

Measures to control landslides and to mitigate their impact

(i) Afforestation : Trees and brushes help in binding the soil particles.

(ii) New technology in road construction : Roads should be constructed in such
a way, that lesser amount of debrisses are generated.

(iii) Ban on quarrying of stones and mining of minerals.

(iv) Instead of exploitation of forests, they should be used scientifically.

(v) Permanent crops like orchards of fruits should replace the seasonal or annual

(vi) By controlling the surface flow of water, seepage of water should be minimised.

(vii) Retaining walls can be built of mountain slopes to stop land from slipping.

(viii) Hazard mapping should be done to locate areas commonly prone to

landslides. Building and construction activities may be banned in such areas.

 The slipping of masses of rocks, earth or debris downwards on the
mountain slopes or banks of rivers is called a landslide.
 During rainy season landslides are a common feature in Himalaya,

Western Ghat and deep river valleys.

Natural Disasters IN INDIA P. 2


The tragedy caused by drought affects the people slowly and vastly. This is different
type of agony but painful. To see domestic animals to die of hunger and thirst
before ones own eyes; to send beloved members of the family in search of
employment to far off places in extremely uncertain and exploitative conditions,
reduction in diet to reduce the already meager diet, to wander in search of work
all day long in relief works and return rejected and empty-handed in the night,
these are some of the heart rending scenes from the drought affected areas of

What is a drought ? 

According to meteorologists the rainfall deficiency during a
long period over a large area is called a drought. Some times in Hindi language
famine Akal and Anavrishty are also used for drought. Drought can also occur
when ground water level is not within reach of agricultural communities. The
government also declares on area affected by drought, if more than 50 percent
crop loss happens in an area due to meteorological condition.

Causes of drought :

Major cause of drought in India is scarcity of rain. But humans have interfered in
the environment processes by their activities. People have filled up the natural
resources like ponds and lakes. They have destroyed the vegetation cover.
Vegetation cover impedes the flow of rainwater and force it to percolate in the
ground. Humans have dug lakhs of tube wells and depleted the ground water

Impact of drought

Droughts cause scarcity of food and water. Hungry and
thirsty people cry for help. People die of hunger, malnutrition and epidemics. People
are forced to migrate from their area of residence. Crops fail due to scarcity of
water. Cattle because fodder and water are not easily available.
Farmers are deprived of their employment. People leave their villages with their
families for a long, unknown and uncertain journey in the pursuit of food, water,
green fodder and employment.

Drought prone areas of India :

Study the map carefully given below. There is a major reason that lies between
South Rajasthan and Tamilnadu. It includes west south Rajasthan and Tamilnadu.
It includes areas of west Madhya Pradesh, central Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka.
Due to deficiency in Monsoon rainfall and environmental degradation, Rajasthan
and Gujrat are generally affected by drought. Out of 593 districts in India, 193
districts are severely drought prone. In 2003 most parts of Rajasthan experienced
drought for the fourth consecutive year.

Measures to cope with Drought :

(i) Suitable farming methods for arid areas : By adopting the following
methods it is possible to mitigate the intensity of drought. The methods are:
Production of coarse and hardy cereals; conservation of soil moisture by
deep ploughing, storing water behind small dams, collecting water in ponds
and tanks and use of sprinklers for irrigation.
(ii) Sowing drought resistant crops: By sowing drought resistant crops of
cotton, Moong, pearl millet, wheat etc, the impact of drought could be mitigated
to a certain extent.
(iii) Rain water harvesting : Collection of each and every drop of rain could
help in coping with the drought.
(iv) By making high bunds around the fields, adoption of terrace cultivation, planting
trees on the bunds of fields, the use of rainwater can be maximised.
(v) Water can also be conserved by taming the irrigation canals with mortar and
(vi) Small quantity of water can irrigate comparatively larger area by using drip
irrigation method.

Drought prone area programme :

This programme was initiated in 1973. The objectives of the programme are as
(i) To minimise the adverse impact of drought on crops, domestic animals,
productivity of land, water and human resources. This could be done by
integrated development by using appropriate technologies as it was done for
the natural resources of Gujrat.
(ii) By developing, conserving and suitably using the rainwater, the ecological
balance could be maintained for a longer period.
(iii) To improve the economic and social conditions of the section of society who

do not have access to resources and facilities.

 The rainfall deficiency during a long period over a large area is
called a drought.
 States of Rajasthan and Gujrat are comparatively more droughtprone
than other states.




Humans have been coping with natural disasters since time immemorial. There are
so many disaster which can not be controlled by human intervention. They are
destined to bring their tragic consequences of human destruction. Due to human
intervention in the natural processes, the destructive power and frequency of natural
disasters have increased considerably. According to U N statistics, natural disasters
kill 1,00,000 persons on an average and cause property damage of Rs 20,000
crores world wide per year. Among the top ten natural disaster-prone countries,
India stands second after China.Therefore, there is a need for creating awareness
among all sections of the people about it’s causes, consequences as well as
preventive measures so that they can handle as an individual, and as a members of


India is struggling with disasters from many years. How can we forget the day
when killer waves (tsunami) struck the coastal parts of India on 26th December
2004 or the morning of 26th January 2001, when western part of India was
badly affected by earthquake. These are just few examples. We always listen
such kind of news in print or electronic media that one part of India is affected
by flood where as another faces drought.
Due to vulnerability of different kinds of disasters, it is said that India is a disaster
prone country, the reasons are:
1. Over 55% of the land area is vulnerable to earthquakes,
2. 12% is flood prone,
3. 8% is vulnerable to cyclones and
4. 70% of the land under cultivation is drought prone.


The vulnerability of enviornment has been increasing continuously due to human
activities. But this is not one sided relationship. Humans are also the components
of the enviornment. Hence they can’t escape from the effects of environmental
change processes. When local, regional or global processes of environment pose
danger to humans or their property, they are simply natural events. For example,
the blizzard blowing in the Antarctica is a natural event. But if this blizzard porses
dangers to our lives and property, then it becomes a disaster.
For instance, tsunami was caused by an earthquake that occurred in the sea near
Sumatra (Indonesia) on 26 December, 2004. It turned into a disaster for India,
Srilanka and some other countries of Southeast Asia. It caused wide spread loss
to human life and property in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and on the coasts of
Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


With the arrival of Monsoon, people living in 4 crore hectares area of the country
become extremely nervous. No one knows when there will be a flood in the river
and their hard earned belongings will be washed away. In comparison to other
disasters flood cause more damage to life and property. Twenty percent of deaths
caused by floods in the world, occur in India.

What is a flood ?

The inundation of an area by water is called a flood. In other words, when a river
over flows its banks and water spreads in the surrounding areas is a flood. Various
causes of flood, losses by flood and flood control measures are described below:
Cause of flood

The causes of flood in India are as follows:

(i) Heavy rainfall : Heavy rain in the catchment area of a river causes water to
over flow its banks, which results in the flooding of nearby areas.

(ii) Sediment deposition : River beds become shallow due to sedimentation.
The water carrying capacity of such river is reduced. As a result the heavy
rain water over flows the river banks.

(iii) Deforestation : Vegetation hampers the flow of water and forces it to
percolate in the ground. As a result of deforestation, the land becomes
obstruction free and water flows with greater speed into the rivers and causes

(iv) Cyclone : Cyclone generated seawaves of abnormal height spreads the water
in the adjoining coastal areas. In October 1994 Orissa cyclone generated
severe floods and caused unprecedented loss of life and property.

(v) Interference in drainage system: Drainage congestion caused by badly
planned construction of bridges, roads, railway tracks, canals etc. hampers
the flow of water and the result is flood.

(vi) Change in the course of the river: Meanders and change in the course of
the river cause floods.

(vii)Tsunami : Large coastal areas are flooded by rising sea water, when a tsunami
strikes the coast.

Losses by flood : Humans and animals both are affected by flood. People are
rendered homeless. Houses are damaged or collapse. Industries are crippled.
Crops are submerged in flood water. Domestic as well as wild animals die. Boats
and fishing nets etc. are lost or damaged in coastal areas. Out break of epidemics
like malaria and diarrhoea etc. are common after flood. Potable water is
contaminated and sometimes becomes scarce. Food grains are lost or spoiled,
their supplies from outside become difficult.

Losses by annual floods, instead of decreasing are increasing every year. In 1953
2.43 crores of people were affected. By 1987 the number of flood affected people
rose to 4.83 crore.

According to an estimate on an-average property worth Rs. 210 crores is lost in
floods every year. Flood affects about 6 crore people and crops of one crore
hectare are damaged.

Flood prone areas : About 4 crore hectare area of our country is flood-prone,
which is one eighth of the total area. The most flood prone areas are the Brahmputra,
Ganga and Indus basins. As far as states are concerned, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
West Bengal and Orissa are the most flood affected states followed by Haryana,
Punjab and Andhra Pradesh. Now a days Rajasthan and Gujarat also feel the fury

of floods. Karnataka and Maharashtra are no-longer immune to floods.

Flood control measures :

(i) Reservoirs : By constructing reservoirs in the courses of rivers could stores
extra water at the time of flood. Such measures adopted till now however,
have not been successful. Dams built to control floods of Damodar could not
control the flood.

(ii) Embankments : By building flood protection embankments, floods water

can be controlled from overflowing the banks and spreading in near by areas.

Building of embankments on Yamuna, near Delhi, has been successful in
controlling the flood.

(iii) Afforestation : The furry of flood could be minimized by planting trees in
catchment areas of rivers.

(iv) Restoration of original drainage system : Drainage system is generally
choked by the construction of roads, canals railway tracks etc. Floods could
be checked if the original form of drainage system is restored.

Flood Management : About 4 crore hectare area is flood prone. Out of this,
1.44 crore hectare areas has been made secure to some extent from the devastation
by floods. To achieve this goal, embankments and drainge channels have been
constructed. Protection of towns and cities have been adopted. Villages are
relocated on comparative by higher ground. By the end of Ninth Plan 8000 crore
rupees have been spent on flood management.

Some do’s and donts before, during and after the flood

(i) Listen to the radio for advance information and advise.
(ii) Disconnect all electrical appliances, move all valuable household goods and
clothing out of reach of flood water. Adopt such measures only when there is
a forecast of flood or you suspect that flood water may reach the house.
(iii) Move vehicles, farm animals and moveable goods to the higher ground.
(iv) Prevent dangerous pollution.
(v) Keep all insecticides, pesticides etc. out of the reach of flood water.
(vi) Switch off electricity and gas, in case you have to leave the house.
(vii) Lock all door and windows if you have to leave the house.
(viii) Do not enter flood water on foot or in a vehicle as far as possible.

(ix) Never wander in the flooded area on your own.



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